The State of Orissa is located in the eastern coast of India at 17 Degree 49' N - 22 Degree 34' N Latitude & 81 Degree 29' E-87 Degree 29' E Longitude. Orissa is surrounded by Andhra Pradesh on the South-East, Madhya Pradesh on the West, Bihar in North, West Bengal in North-East and Bay of Bengal in the East. The State has total area of 15,5707 sq. km. Climate of the Orissa is usually humid or hot & moist. Average rainfall in Orissa is 1482 mm , w here as, annual average temperature is 26.2 Degree C.
Orissa can be divided into two clear-cut natural divisions.
Coastal Plain and North-Western Plateau
The coastal plain varies in width except in Southern Ganjam District where the Eastern Ghats are the highest (1500 meters above sea level) and lies close to the sea. A very large river, Mahanadi crosses this plain and its big delta merges into the deltas formed bythe Brahmini and Baitarani. These deltas are fertile and are provide with irrigation facilities. All these rivers being enormous water and sometimes cause dangerous floods during the rainy season. But during the dry seasons, their channels are almost dry. The largest Salt Lake 'Chilka Lake' is situated in this State only. It is situated at 110 Km from Bhubaneswar, the State capital of Orissa. The coastal low land receives about 152 cm rain a year because it comes directly under the influence of tropical depression originating in the Bay of Bengal during the monsoon and rainy season. Thus a distinctive climate feature is introduced into the climate of this region by tropical cyclone which sometimes cause immense damage to property and the standing crops particularly sugarcane, coconuts both of strong wind and heavy downpour. Mangrove grows along the delta where it meets the sea.
Demography of Orissa
The total population of Orissa as at 0:00 hours of 1st March 2001 stood at 36,706,920 as per the provisional results of the Census of India 2001. In terms of population it holds the same position (eleventh) among States and Union territories as at the previous census. The population of the State rose by 15.94% between 1991-2001. The sex ratio (i.e., the number of females per thousand males) of population was recorded as 972. Total literacy in the State has shown significant improvement. This has risen from 49.09% in 1991 to 63.61% in the present Census.
The population of Orissa increased from 316.60 lakh in 1991 to 368.05 lakh in 2001. The decennial growth rate of population of Orissa during 1991-01 was 16.25% as against 20.06% in the previous decade. The decline in the growth rate may be attributed to the rise in literacy rate, effective dissemination of the message about benefits of small family, and the drive launched by the State Government to provide better access to family planning measures. The sex ratio in the State i.e. number of females per 1,000 males marginally increased from 971 in 1991 to 972 in 2001 as compared to the all India average, which increased from 927 to 933 during the same period. The density of population, which was 203 persons per sq km in 1991, increased to 236 per sq km in 2001. The urban population of 13.38% in 1991 increased to 14.99 % in 2001. On the literacy front the achievement has been impressive as the literacy rate increased from 49.09 % in 1991 to 63.1 % in 2001 as against an increase from 52.10 % to 64.8% at the national level during the same period. The male and female literacy rates, which were 63.1 % and 34.7% in 1991, have increased to 75.3% and 50.5% respectively in 2001. Female literacy continues to be an area of concern despite notable achievement during last decade.